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2019-2020年高考英语大题精做15书面表达开放类含解析新人教版

2019-2020 年高考英语大题精做 15 书面表达开放类含解析新人教版
(半)开放式书面表达:指给出很少的提示或近乎命题作文,这种题要求考生发挥想象把文章的内容合 理地表达出来。也有的是给出漫画、一句话或一种情景,让考生根据自己的理解写作文,即给出漫画、主 题或两三点提示,由考生去发挥、构思。
(半)开放作文形同于书面表达,但又不等同于书面表达,因为书面表达往往给出较为详细的提示(文字 提纲式、文字+图画式、或图表式),考生在组织短文时,完全可以把这些提示当作短文的提纲或线索;考 生在表达时,只需沿着这条线索思维即可,留给考生进行发散思维的空间不多。而"(半)开放作文"是一 种限制相对较少、留给考生更多自由发挥空间的、考查学生书面表达能力的一种新题型。这种题型只给出 主题,也就是说只告诉你正在或将要发生什么事情,至于事情发生的过程、结果则完全由考生自己去发挥, 考生的思维完全可以发散。所以,考生的思路不同,写出的作文就会是千人千面。
标题式 标题式(半)开放作文的命题形式往往是要求考生围绕一个特定的话题去写作。"标题式(半)开放作文" 实际上相当于汉语的命题式作文,考生只要围绕题目中所给的特定的话题说明、叙述、举例,加上谈谈自 己的感想或发表自己的看法就可以了。
漫画式 漫画式(半)开放作文以北京高考为代表。命题形式往往是要求考生围绕一幅漫画去写作。然而,相对于" 标题式"(半)开放作文而言,"漫画式"(半)开放作文的写作难度更大。
常考文体 "(半)开放作文"的常考文体有两种:记叙文和议论文。 "记叙式开放作文"一般给出一段材料,然后要求考生沿着材料的纵横发展方向,充分发挥想象力,拓 展原材料内容;同时运用逻辑推理方法,进行谋篇布局;最后串词成句,连句成文。总结起来就是,"记叙 式(半)开放作文"要求考生灵活处理所给材料,做到综合分析,辩证思考,提炼观点,力求论点合理,论 据充分,论证严密。 "议论式(半)开放作文"则要求考生根据所提供的信息材料(一般为漫画),在描述漫画信息之余,发 挥自己的想象,展开简单的议论,并略谈自己的观点和看法。总结起来就是,"议论式(半)开放作文"要 求考生围绕所给漫画的信息,简要地进行描述,辩证思考,提炼观点,力求论点合理,发人深思。值得注 意的是:近年来,北京卷"(半)开放作文"倾向于"就图论事"、"就图明理"。可以说,"议论式(半) 开放作文"与现在流行的新课改、新课程、新课标非常吻合,也与流行的研究性学习、探究性学习非常一

致,既迎合了当前教学潮流,又对潮流有一定的引领和推动作用。因此,考生要注意训练自己围绕图片, 总结写作要点的能力。另外,看图类文章的审题难度要略大于文字类文章的审题难度,所以考生在平时的 训练中应该加强对解图能力的训练。 第一步、描述漫画内容 描述漫画内容的基本条件是看懂漫画。要求是:审图要准,定位要清;描述时言简意赅,不可越位;要注 意:不要花太多时间挖掘图画深意!因为(半)开放作文不看重你的思想厚度,而看重你的语言质量。第二 步、阐述对漫画的理解
所谓对漫画的理解,是指围绕漫画反映的基本事实进行较为细致的解释和自己的看法、感想或人生感悟 等。要求是:逻辑清晰,合情合理。
根据以上两个步骤,我们可以这样认为:"(半)开放作文"只要求你做两件事情,一件是描述图画 (describe the following picture),另一件是阐述你对图画解释和看法(explain how you understand it)。相应地,你只需要写两个段落,一段是"描述段",另一段是"议论段"。
1."描述段"的写法:第一句可以使用如下句式: In the picture, there is…等。 "描述段"的功 能就是传达图画中的信息,向读者交代图画内容,所以必能使用"there be"句型。另外,"描述段"的 另一个功用即:为第二段的议论埋下伏笔。
2."议论段"的写法:"议论"段的首句有个固定的句式,即:In my opinion, the picture is meaningful and wonderful as well.等。如何发议论呢?所谓议论,就是根据图画信息,表达你的看法、 感想。考生不必过深地挖掘图画信息,只需用简单的英文,表达平易的道理。换句话说,只要你能用正确 的英文表达你的感想,便赢得了胜利。
Writing 1(xx·新课标全国卷 I) 假定你是李华,暑假想去一家外资公司兼职,已写好申请书和个人简历(resume)。给外教 Ms Jenkins 写 信,请她帮你修改所附材料的文字和格式(forma)。 注意:

1. 词数 100 左右; 2. 可以适当增加细节,以使行文连贯。 ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 【参考范文】 Dear Ms Jenkins, I am Li Hua. I am writing to tell you something about my plan for the ing summer vacation and I also want you to do me a favor. In order to get some practical experience, I am planning to take a part-time job in a foreign capital pany. I have already finished my job application and personal resume. But this is the first time that I have written an application and the personal resume, so I don’t even know if there are something to pay attention to. So, I’m writing you the letter, hoping you can give me some help. I will be very grateful if you can help me. Looking forward to your reply. And I’d be really thankful. Yours, Li Hua
【名师点睛】 本文是一篇较为优秀的范文。格式正确,要点全面,语言通顺、流畅,很好地完成了写作任务。在本文中 开头提出写信的目的,然后具体讲述自己的困难,再提出请求,最后表达自己的感激之情。所以在内容上 逻辑性较强。此外,作者还使用了不定式短语 In order to get some practical experience, 现在分词短 语 hoping you can give me some help, 宾语从句 if there are something to pay attention to 等。经

典句式 this is the first time that I have written an application and the personal resume 也是 文章的亮点所在。
Writing 2(xx·浙江卷) "Planning is good, but doing is better"是一句英国名言。请以此为题用英语写一篇 100~120 词的短文。要求如下: 1. 简述你对这句名言的理解; 2. 用一个具体事例加以说明; 3. 给出恰当的结尾。 注意: 1. 文章的标题已给出(不计词数); 2. 文中不得以任何形式透露地区、学校、老师或同学姓名等真实信息,否则按作弊行为认定。
Planning Is Good, But Doing Is Better ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________ 【参考范文】
Planning Is Good, But Doing Is Better Planning is good as it decides in detail how we do what we want to do. However, a plan can bear no fruit without being actually carried out. My experience in the English speech contest last October is a case in point. A month before the event, I spent hours working out a schedule outlining my goals and practical steps. After that, I set out to read widely for an inspiring topic, wrote a speech, and practiced its delivery in beautiful pronunciation with good public speech skills. I finally came out of the contest as the first prize winner. I know how I achieved my success. It came from good planning and better doing bined. 【写作指导】

本文为一篇开放式作文。题目给出标题和提纲。结合题目可判断出主要是介绍将计划付诸实施的重要 性。围绕这个主旨去写,不能跑题。提纲部分还要求三个方面:1. 简述你对这句名言的理解;2. 用一个 具体事例加以说明;3. 给出恰当的结尾。这就确定了作文的结构框架。在主旨和结构确定下来后,还要注 意文章应用第一人称和一般现在时、一般过去时。写作时发挥自己的想象,灵活运用英语知识,采用不同 的表达方式将文章完整地表述出来。注意要主次分明、详略得当,语言力求准确、简洁,同时应选用合适 的连接词或过渡词,使文章自然连贯。最后要认真查验是否有漏写情况、有无拼写错误及标点误用等。 【名师点睛】
本篇范文短小精悍,结构合理,语言简洁,时态、人称准确,很好地完成了写作任务。在文章开头, 作者紧扣题目,提出自己对 plan 的理解,同时引出下文,然后用自己的亲身经历表明要将计划付诸实施非 常重要。在文中,作者用到了短语 in detail, bear no fruit, carry out, set out to 等短语,避免了 文章表达的单一。此外,还用到了宾语从句 how we do 和 how I achieved my success, 以及句型 It came from good planning and better doing bined 等,这些都给文章增加了亮点。
Writing 3(xx·浙江卷) 在班级活动中,当你的想法与大多数同学不一致时,你是坚持自己的观点并说服别人,还是尊重大多 数同学的意见?请你以"When I Have a Different Opinion"为题,用英语写一篇 100~120 个词的短文。 要求如下: 1. 从以上两种做法中选择一种; 2. 以具体事例阐述你选择的理由。 注意:短文中,不得以任何形式透露地区、学校、同学姓名等真实信息。否则,按考试作弊行为认定。
When I Have a Different Opinion ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 【参考范文】 Possible version 1:
When I Have a Different Opinion

We may have different opinions in organizing class activities. We may have various ways to deal with such a situation. When I have a better idea, I would choose to stick to it. By doing so, I can not only share good ideas with others but also learn to express myself clearly.
Once we were discussing where to go for an outing. Most of my classmates wanted to go to a park while I had an idea of going to a nicer place. I managed to persuade my classmates into accepting my idea. We did have a good time that day. Good opinions are worth sticking to because they can benefit us all. Possible version 2:
When I Have a Different Opinion We may have different opinions in organizing class activities. When I have a different opinion, I may choose to give it up and respect the opinion of the majority. The main reason for my choice is that being brought up in a culture emphasizing collectivism, I tend to sacrifice my own interest for the group benefit. Once we were left to decide whether to have a picnic in a park or go to a museum. I would love to go to a museum, but most of my classmates wanted to go for a picnic. Without hesitation, I decided to follow them and we did have lots of fun that day. Sometimes giving up a little can mean getting more.
Writing 4(xx·湖南卷) 学校正在组织科技创新大赛,你想为日常生活中某件物品(如钢笔、书包、鞋子……)设计添加新功能 来参赛。请以"My Magic ________"为题写一篇英语短文,介绍你的创意。 内容: 1. 说明设计理由; 2. 介绍新功能。 注意: 1. 词数不少于 120 个; 2. 不能使用真实姓名和学校名称。 ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________

【参考范文】

My Magic Shoes

As is known to us all, shoes play an important role in our life, for it can protect our feet

from

being

hurt.

Writing 5(xx·江苏卷) 请根据你对以下两幅图的理解,以"Actions Speak Louder than Words"为题,用英语写一篇作文。
参考词汇: banner (横幅) stump (树桩) 你的作文应包括以下内容:
1.简要描述两幅图的内容; 2.概述你对两幅图中不同做法的理解; 3.举例说明两幅图对你的启示。 注意: 1.可参照图片适当发挥; 2.作文词数 150 左右; 3.作文中不得提及有关考生个人身份的任何信息,如校名、人名等。

Actions Speak Louder than Words

____________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________

【参考范文】

Actions Speak Louder than Words

People celebrate Earth Day differently. In Picture 1, a man is trying to put up a banner on

a

lonely

tree

Writing1(河北省保定市 xx 高三摸底考试) 进入高三以来,同学们倍感学习压力,有的同学熬夜学习,甚至课间十分钟也不放过。假设你是李华, 请针对这一现象,在 penpal world 网站上用英语发表一下自己的看法,与外国中学生进行交流。 注意:1. 词数 100 左右。
2. 可以适当增加细节,以使行文连贯。

____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 【参考范文】 Hi Fellows,
I’m Li Hua, a senior high student from China. I’d like to share something with you. Since the beginning of senior high, the learning burden makes us students feel more stressed. Many of us often sit up late at night fighting for the College Entrance Exam; even a ten-minute break won’t be let go.
As far as I know, lack of sleep does great harm to our health. For one thing, we can’t concentrate in class if we don’t get enough sleep. For another, we may get angry and impatient easily. By the same token, a ten-minute break is definitely necessary, which can help us get rid of tiredness and focus on next class period. A famous proverb goes well, "All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy". How about your situation and opinion?
Looking forward to your reply. Writing 2(xx 河北衡水名校高考英语一轮复习撬题对点练)
近年来,名校受到越来越多的家长和学生的推崇。请你结合这个现象写一篇英语短文,分析出现" 名校热"的原因,并针对这个现象谈谈你的看法。 注意:词数 100 左右。 ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 【参考范文】

In recent years, more and more parents want to send their children to famous schools because they think it can ensure that their children go to famous universities.
It is true that famous schools are equipped with better teaching facilities. However, not every student is fit for famous schools where there is fierce petition among students. And students there have to work much harder than students in other schools.
I hope the government will take effective measures to make sure all the schools provide equally good education. In this way, all the students have equal right to high?quality education.
Writing 3(xx 江西省重点中学高三模拟) 为响应“中国梦——我的梦”,彰显高中生的青春与活力,近期 JGEXB(井冈英语学报)发布了一则征文, 体裁为演讲稿。征文题目为“I believe I can”。 注意: 1. 词数:100 左右; 2.格式已给出; 3. 可适当增加细节,以使行文连贯。 Good morning, ladies and gentlemen, ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 【参考范文】 Good morning, ladies and gentlemen, Please answer me a question, “Have you ever seen such a scene as the following?” In the morning, when you wake up, open your eyes slowly, look around, you can notice that the light es into your room and smell the fresh air, you can hear the sweet nature voice outside the windows. Yes, yes, yes, what a beautiful day, what a different day, and what a bright day! And most importantly, it is a new journey of your life, a new beginning to make new decisions, take new actions, make new friends, and take your life to a totally new world! In your eyes, you can see clearly the things you want to have, the paces you intend to go,

the relationship you desire to develop, and the positions you aspire to reach. You are the only one; I am the only one, too. We are all special and different. Life will be senseless if there is no person.
I am myself, so I believe I can! I know every dream will e true if I'm passionate, confident and
Writing 1 如何理解"合作",不同的人有不同的看法。请认真阅读下面的引语(quotation),按要求用英语写一篇 短文。 "United we stand, divided we fall." 内容要求: 1.你对该引语的理解; 2.你的相关经历; 3.你所得出的结论。 注意:1.短文开头已给出,不计入总词数; 2.文中不能出现考生的具体信息; 3.词数 100 左右。 This quotation tells us that______________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 【参考范文】
This quotation tells us that unity is strength. Whenever we are faced with difficulties, cooperation plays a significant role in getting us out of trouble. ? There was a time when I was so skilled in playing basketball that I became so proud. However, after we lost a game due to the fact that I overlooked my partners and refused to cooperate with them, my coach made me realize the importance of cooperation. ?Later on, not only did I cooperate with others in the game but also I learned to help others and turned to them for help. Surely cooperation made a big difference and helped our team make many achievements. From this experience I learn that only if we attach much importance to cooperation can we win.
Writing 2 你校英文报纸开辟了一个专栏:Experience。本期话题是如何面对失败。请你写一篇英语短文,谈谈

自己的看法。 注意:
1.词数 100 左右; 2.短文中不能出现与本人相关的信息。 ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 【参考范文】 As high school students, we have to admit that failure is part of our life. Difficulties can arise now and then, which may cause us repeated failure. And it’s impossible for us to get rid of them pletely. But we can develop the right attitude towards failure. ? When faced with failure, I never feel upset, blame others or plain about the environment. Instead, I remain optimistic and regard every failure as an opportunity to learn. If we can draw a lesson from each failure, we’ll be on the right way to success. Therefore, in the face of failure, take your courage. What’s more, if necessary, turn to your classmates and teachers for help.

Writing 3 请根据以下提示,并结合事例,用英语写一篇短文。
We all know that "sticks and stones may break our bones", but we should also be aware that words can hurt people, too. 注意:
1.无须写标题,不得照抄英语提示语; 2.除诗歌外,文体不限; 3.文中不得透露个人姓名和学校名称; 4.词数 100 左右。 ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________
Writing 4 请阅读下面短文,并按照要求用英语写一篇 150 词左右的文章。
Beauty lies everywhere. One famous person once said, "It’s not the lack of beauty in life, but the lack of the eyes to find the beauty." Jim: I have a deep understanding of the sentence. The eyes stand for our attitude towards life.
If we hold an optimistic attitude towards life, we are more willing and active to find

everything more attractive around us. As a matter of fact, an optimistic person will find daily things more beautiful than a pessimistic person. Linda: People may be easily affected by the surroundings. Whatever we see every day has a real
effect on our mindset. Therefore, I think we should learn to change our attitude towards life, and try our best to keep motivated and encouraged. If we keep an eye open for things around us intentionally, we can find there is much more beauty waiting for us. 写作内容 1.用约 30 个单词写出上文概要; 2.用约 120 个单词谈谈你对"保持积极向上的心态"的看法,并用 2~3 个理由或论据支撑你的看法。 写作要求 1.写作过程中不能直接引用原文语句; 2.作文中不能出现真实姓名和学校名称; 3.不必写标题。 评分标准 内容完整,语言规范,语篇连贯,词数适当。 ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 【参考范文】 As we all know, various people hold various attitudes towards life. Optimistic people are often delighted to find beauty everywhere and the beauty is always ready for those who are active and optimistic. From my point of view, having an optimistic attitude can make a great difference in life. First, being active and optimistic plays a role in changing our attitude towards life, thus changing the way we perform and act, and finally bettering our bodily functions. That is to say, the optimistic mindset is of great benefit to us physically and mentally. Besides, this kind of mindset is helpful in improving people’s social relationships. That’s

why an active and optimistic person is always surrounded by a large number of friends. My optimistic attitude towards life is highly thought of by my friends. They always find pleasure in staying with me. They say their attitude has been changed as a result of that. In a word, an optimistic attitude can benefit us as well as the people around us.

2019-2020 年高考英语完型填空解题策略训练教学设计
教学时间:40 分钟 教学内容:高考完型填空解题策略指导与训练 学生情况分析:
学生目前已经完成一轮一到八模块基础语言知识和主要语法项目的复习,转入专项题型 训练阶段。从过往的情况来看,完型填空题的正确率是不太理想的,原因主要在于两个方面: 一是词汇搭配和语义辨析不过关,遗忘率较高;二是没有根据题型特点运用适当的解题策略, 往往由于脱离上下文,偏离主线而出错。前者要在下一轮的复习中继续巩固积累;后者则需 要进行有效策略的指导,这正是本节课的目标定位,让学生学会充分利用篇章,句子,词汇 提供的信息命中正确选项。同时在前一轮的复习中发现教师讲,学生听的方式效果不理想, 学生听完就忘了,所以还是应把训练落实到做上,从做中去体验,思考和学习。 教学材料分析:
本节课选编的材料分为三个部分,第一部分是按照所用技巧分类的练习,让学生集中训 练三种技巧,全部节选自历届高考题;第二部分是一篇完型填空的文章部分,选项部分放在 第三部分;三个部分依此发给学生,让学生顺着教师的指引进行训练。 教学目标设置:
本节课是针对高考题型完型填空的专题训练课,目的在于帮助学生形成正确清晰的解题 思路,掌握有效的技巧,从而增强备考的信心,并明确今后努力的方向。在教学策略上贯彻 “在做中学,学中做”的教学策略,让学生在课堂上通过亲身体验各种解题技巧形成自己的 策略,得到思维的锻炼。具体目标设定如下:
1.了解完型填空的题型特点,掌握简单有效的技巧和正确的解题步骤,提高答题正确 率;其中重点是各种技巧在实践中的熟练运用;
2.通过大量的训练实践引导学生观察,归纳,思考,运用,帮助他们熟练进而内化并能 运用有效的解题策略,锻炼思维及实操能力。 教学方式:归纳法;演绎法;观察法;自主学习与合作学习的方法等

教学过程设计

序 教学内容

教学目的



1 独立完成分类完 本环节的训练涉及到不同技巧的运用,目的在于让学生以分类的形

型填空练习

式接触不同类型的设问方式,从而自我反思,归纳出相应的技巧策



2 小组讨论答案及 学生通过与同伴的交流,对照彼此的观点,有助于开阔思路,从而

选择的理由

调整或肯定自己的想法

3 师生共同归纳其 教师参与交流,引导学生更深刻地领会各种技巧对答题的帮助

中的技巧

4 整篇完型填空练 学生可以亲自验证以上技巧在整篇练习中的有效性;同时在本环节



还会引导学生按一定的步骤完成任务,鼓励他们在今后的学习中多

尝试对照不同策略解题的有效性,从而形成适合自己的策略

5 只 给 出 文 章 部 完型填空所涉及的是一系列与上下文相联系的设空,所以对于文章

分,学生快速阅 整体内容的理解和对作者写作意图的把握对于正确答案的获取非常

读,把握主旨 关键;如果在不了解文章主旨的情况下即作出选择是较容易偏离方

向而导致错误的出现;所以在这一步,学生无法看到选项,目的是

让他们调整策略,养成先抓住主线的习惯

6 仔细阅读首句和 首句往往有开篇明意的作用,而末句往往是文章的小结或挑明作者

末句,并结合所 的意图,首尾相连,可以进一步确定文章的主线和作者的意图,为

有已知信息确定 下一步的选择做好理解上的充分准备

主题及作者意图

7 给出选项,认真 通过对文章的理解,技巧的运用,作出选择;学生在做的过程中体

推敲确定答案 会答题的策略

8 小组讨论,对照 让学生用相应的技巧验证答案的正确性,并排除干扰项,进一步体

答案,运用所学 会和熟练运用技巧策略

技巧验证答案,

排除干扰

9 选出两个小组展 把答案背后的技巧点出来,使学生进一步体会到掌握正确的方法是

示讨论结果,师 提高正确率的保障,从而也增强了解题的信心

生共同对照讨论

答案

10 课堂小结

引导学生整理思路,明确答题策略的重要性,建议多尝试不同的方

式,对照其有效性,包括正确率及速度,从而确定最适合自己的有

效策略

11 作 业 布 置 --- 备 巩固所学,进一步训练

考指南相关部分

(详细教学过程见附录 1)

教学反思 一般对于完型填空的训练多采取整篇训练的方式,尽管讲评过程中教师也会指导答题策
略,但是会显得分散,学生听完后印象不深刻,感受也不如本节课集中突破的方式强烈。在 课堂的最后部分,感觉学生的思路较为清晰,掌握了方法也使他们更加有信心去面对这一题 型。

附录 1:详细教学过程 Step One Find out skills in doing cloze tests. *Get students to do several parts of the cloze tests taken from NMET. *Discuss the answers first in a group and then with the teacher and find out the skills used in different parts.

Step Two Practise doing a cloze test. *Get students to read the passage of a cloze test in one minute and a half with these questions in their mind:
What is the passage about? ( who; what; when; where; why; how) *Get students to focus on the first sentence and then the last. Try to see how the two sentences help them get the theme and clue of the story. *Get students to choose the answers in 5 minutes. *Discuss their answers in a group first and then with the whole class.

Step Three Summarize the approaches for doing a cloze text.

Step Four Assignment

附录 2: 教学材料(练习) 使用说明:依此发放 Part 1, 2, 3 的材料

高考完型填空解题策略训练

Part 1

技巧一: __________________________________

***(04 天津卷)The other girls rushed 39 me. I felt 40. ashamed as I fell

farther and farther behind. “Hooray!” shouted the crowd. It was the loudest 41

I had ever heard at a meet. The first-place runner was two laps ahead of me when

she crossed the finishing line.



When I finished, I heard a cheer--- 47. louder than the one I’d heard

earlier.

39. A. from behind B. ahead of C. next to D. close to

41. A. cheer

B. shout

C. cry D. noise

***(04 北京卷) … he told me I needed to relax because I looked nervous . After I 55 down, I played better. 55. A. fell B. stepped C. slowed D. calmed

***(04 广东卷) “Ring up this lady. She wants a 51 immediately. In fact, you would have to start tomorrow by cooking a dinner for ten people.” 51. A. cook B. help C. teacher D. secretary

*** “I’m angry with 50 . I realize I’ve failed as a father. I’m going to walk home now and think seriously about… 50. A. you B. myself C. me D. yourself

技巧二: __________________________________

*** (05 全国卷) The man had a newspaper 38 in front of him, which he was 39

to read, but I could 40. see that he was keeping an eye on me.

38. A. flat B. open C. cut

D. fixed

39. A. hoping B. thinking C. pretending D. continuing

***(04 北京卷) I was very thin 47 I started football, but as a member of this team I wouldn’t eat much, because I was afraid of being too 48 to run. 47. A. till B. since C. before D. because 48. A. full B. tired C. lazy D. big

技巧三: __________________________________

*** (04 江苏卷) On 39 days, she wore heavy clothes and a pair of woolen gloves… 39. A. sunny B. rainy C. cloudy D. snowy ***(04 广东卷) I had seen an agency advertised in a local newspaper. I rushed out of the 36 in search of it. I was wildly excited, and as 37 as if I were going on the stage. 36. A. bed B. house C. agency D. office 37. A. proud B. pleased C. nervous D. worried
Part 2 (A)
The young engineer sat down on a rock and rested his head in his hands. He would never get home, it was
1 . For weeks he had been lost in the northwest Canadian forest. Now there was a terrible 2 behind his eyes, and worst of all, he had gone 3 .
Suddenly a man appeared out of the woods, an Indian who had been hunting in the area. Seeing the engineer’s 4 , he caught a fish in a nearby stream and fed the sick man the 5 of the fish and some flesh from its head. 6 within a few hours the engineer’s pain was 7 . A day later he could
8 again, and the next day he had pletely recovered. When he returned home, the engineer told the 9 to Dr Price. Not until years
later did it bee an accepted fact that this was just an everyday 10 doing its work. What the engineer did, by eating fish eyes, was to take his vitamin A, which protected his eyes from eye problems.

Part 3
1. A. hopeless 2. A. scene 3. A. mad 4. A. starvation 5. A. tail 6. A. Possibly 7. A. shown 8. A. see 9. A. news 10. A. sight

B. useless B. illness B. angry B. thirst B. skin B. Surprisingly B. gone B. speak B. result B. food

C. careless C. pain C. blind C. reality C. bone C. Fortunately C. settled C. walk C. secret C. lifeguard

D. timeless D. heat D. wrong D. trouble D. eyes D. Immediately D. disappeared D. work D. story D. service

点评: 在历年高考中完型填空是比较容易失分的题项,虽然看上去也是选择题,但却与语法和
词汇的选择题大不一样。完型填空题是集词语辨析、词的用法以及搭配、语法、单句理解、 语篇理解的考查为一体的综合题,它主要测试学生的语言知识、阅读能力和总体语言水平, 检查学生在有信息空缺的前提下理解整篇文章的能力,要求通过上下文判断,选择恰当的单 词或词组填入空格中,使之成为上下合乎逻辑、语言通顺、意义连贯的文章。

它不但要求同学们具有扎实的基础知识,而且还要求必须具备较强的分析理解、逻辑推 断能力及语感。因此理解文章的意思是关键。还要具备扎实的单词、词组、句型和语法知识; 也要有逻辑推理的能力和归纳的能力。此外,对英语国家文化背景知识的掌握也有助于提高 此练习的准确率。
完型填空的空格分为三种:语法性空格、词汇性空格和篇章性空格,前两项虽与语法、 词汇有关,却更注重对上下文的理解,第三种属于较难的,考察对全文及作者意图的理解。 正确的解题过程应分为三步:通读全文、预设答案、重新检查。
现在很多学生在做完型填空题时往往是一碰到空格就马上看选项做出答案的选择,由于 短文被挖去一些词,造成信息的中断,同学们做题时,必然会出现思维断层现象。而由于脱 离上下文的意思,偏离主线内容而出错。
陈艳华老师的这堂课主要针对学生出现的上述问题,在教学设计上首先用历年高考题中 的完型填空题根据词汇信息(vocabulary information)、逻辑信息(logic information) 和生活常识(mon sense) 分类,让学生完成分解的单句选项填空练习,并根据做题情况归纳 出相应的解题技巧。
再让学生做全篇短文的练习时,陈老师有意地把短文与选项拆开先后发给学生,开始只 是给出短文,有意识地训练学生先通篇阅读全文,特别是注意短文的首句和尾句,养成先抓 住文章主线的习惯。一般情况下,完形填空短文都不给标题,学生不容易把握文章的主题和 大意。但短文首句通常不设空格,这就为我们窥视文章全貌提供了一个窗口,而尾句往往是 文章的总结、结论和点睛之笔,所以抓住开篇启示作用的首句和总结概括性的尾句是必要的。
然后再分发选项,让学生分小组进行讨论,对照答案,运用所学技巧验证答案,排除干 扰,并把答案背后的技巧说出来。
在整个教学过程中,陈老师始终贯彻让学生“在做中学,学中做”的教学策略,训练学 生在课堂上通过亲身体验各种解题技巧形成自己的解题策略。
当然,陈老师的这堂课提供的只是多种完型填空解题方法中的一种策略,而有效的解题 策略不应该是唯一的。老师们可以根据不同学生的具体情况采用不同的教学策略。总之,不 管采用什么方式,能让学生在考试中取得最大限度正确率的策略就是最佳的策略。




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